I have to clean this up.

  • coding
  • php
  • sql
  • webhosts
  • joomla tips. 

This section is a reflection of my coding skills -- cut and paste, and hastily thrown together. Most of this is copied from other sites -- just so I have fast reference here.
If it belongs to you - sorry. Let me know. Though most has attribution. ;-)

 Describing briefly the purpose of each directory.

  1. /bin : All the executable binary programs (file) required during booting, repairing, files required to run into single-user-mode, and other important, basic commands viz.catdudftarrpmwc, history, etc.
  2. /boot : Holds important files during boot-up process, including Linux Kernel.
  3. /dev : Contains device files for all the hardware devices on the machine e.g., cdromcpu, etc
  4. /etc : Contains Application’s configuration files, startupshutdownstartstop script for every individual program.
  5. /home : Home directory of the users. Every time a new user is created, a directory in the name of user is created within home directory which contains other directories like DesktopDownloadsDocuments, etc.
  6. /lib : The Lib directory contains kernel modules and shared library images required to boot the system and run commands in root file system.

this is in place here for

edit the template index.php file and add the following AS THE VERY FIRST LINES of the install's primary index.php.

$domain = $_SERVER["HTTP_HOST"];
$url = $domain . $uri;

if (($url == "") ||
   ($url == "")) { 
   header("Status: 301 Moved Permanently");

Here's the benefit: The visitor will now be redirected to the appropriate Red Site page, that has the Red Template assigned to it only in the case where they have arrived at the 'red site' domain name. Otherwise, the conditional PHP rule is ignored, and the Yellow Site loads.

The grep command searches the given input FILEs for lines containing a match or a text string.

grep command syntax

The syntax is:

grep "text string to search” directory-path


Pipes can be thought of as a tube where data enters one end and sorted or customized at the other end.  Using pipes you can connect two programs. You can make the output of a particular command to act as the input for another command.  You can carry on this chain  between commands for customized outputs.

Pipes can be used with most of the Unix commands. You should take care to check that the output of the first command is acceptable input to the second command.
It should not be that the first command has its output in some format other than text format and the second command works with only text input. If at all this sort of thing happens, you would mostly get an error message or you would have to type <Ctrl>-C to quit the execution of the command and come back to the prompt.

  1. Part I: Basic Find Commands for Finding Files with Names
  2. Part II: Find Files Based on their Permissions
  3. Part III: Search Files Based On Owners and Groups
  4. Part IV: Find Files and Directories Based on Date and Time
  5. Part V: Find Files and Directories Based on Size


find <path> <conditions> <actions>

Condition flow

\! -name "*.c"
\( x -or y \)


-exec rm {} \;


find . -name '*.jpg'
find . -name '*.jpg' -exec rm {} \;
find . -newerBt "24 hours ago"



Other sites hosted by L Rio.